References

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R. Weber; Leistungssport 1: 53-57; 1997: “Muskelstimulation durch Vibration” (article in German)

H. Schiessl, H.M.Frost, W.S.S. Jee , Bone 22 (1):1-6; 1998 : “Estrogen and Bone-Muscle Strength and Mass Relationships”

H. M. Frost, The Anatomical Record 219: 1-9 (1987): “Bone ‘mass’ and the ‘mechanostat'; a proposal”

C. Rubin, et al, “Nature”, august 9 2001: “Gentle vibration prevents bone loss.”

C. Rubin, “FASEB J.”, October 2001: “The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli”

S. Haring, M.Hartard, M.Schlitter, et al (Technical University of Munchen, unpublished data) “Long Term effects of Galileo 2000 – a new training device” (post-menopausal women)

O. Roessler, et al (Friedrich Schiller Universitaet Jena; unpublished data): “Wirkung mechanischer Stimuli mittels oszillierender interventionen durch Galileo 2000 auf Muskelkraft und Knochendichte”. (young people)

G. Wilhelm, et al; Osteoporosis Int. 8 suppl.3 (1998); 121. “Evaluation of long term effects of Galileo2000 in a randomized controlled study”

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S.V. Chelomey; Book of abstracts, 11th conference of the ESB, July 8-11 (1998), Toulouse France: “About the effect of artificial gravity arising due to the action of high frequency vibrations on the oscillation system”

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J.A. Becerra Motta, Leistungssport 2001, 2 (29-35): “Die Wirksamkeit der Biomechanischen Stimulation (BMS) in verbindung mit Traditionellen Methoden der Kraftausdauerentwicklung im Schwimmsport”

M.Hartard, C.Kleinmond, C.Lammel, et al (Technical University Munchen, unpublished data) “Recovery effects of Galileo 2000″

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C. Bosco, et al; Biol. Sport 15 (1998) 3; 157-164 “The influence of whole body vibration on the mechanical behavior of skeletal muscle”

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C.Bosco, et al; Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 79 (1999); 306-311 “Influence of vibration on mechanical power and EMG activity in human arm flexor muscles”

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V.B.Issurin, D.G.Liebermann, G.Tenenbaum; Journal of sports sciences 12: 561-566; 1994: “Effect of vibratory stimulation training on maximal force and flexibility”

V.B.Issurin, G.Tenenbaum; Journal of sports sciences 17: 177-182; 1999: “Acute and residual effects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes”

A.V. Zinkovsky, D.G.Arsenyev, V.V.Kuznetsov, et al; Abstract 10th conference of the ESB 1996: “Electro-vibrostimulation training and recuperating of human skeletal-muscular apparatus”

V.B.Issurin, D.G.Liebermann, G.Tenenbaum: “Vibratory stimulation training: a new approach for developing strength and flexibility in athletes”

T.Klyscz, C.Ritter-Schempp, et al; Hautarzt 48: 318-322; 1997: “Biomechanische Stimulationstherapie (BMS) zur physikalischen Behandlung des arthrogenen Stauungssyndroms”

B.J.Martin, H-S Park; Eur. Journal Applied Physiol. 75: 504-511; 1997: “Analysis of the tonic vibration reflex: influence of vibration variables on motor unit synchronisation and fatigue”

W.Rohmert, et al; Eur. Journal Applied Physiol. 59: 243-248; 1989: “Effects of vibration on arm and schoulder muscles in three body postures”

G.J.C. Ettema; J. Biomech. 1996; 29 (9) 1147-55: “Contractile behaviour in skeletal muscle-tendon unit during small amplitude sine wave perturbations”

Romaiguere P, et al, Brain Res. 1993, jan 29; 602 (1); 32-40: “Effects of tonic vibration reflex on motor unit recruitment in human wrist extensor muscles”

L.E. Necking, et al; Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Hand Surg. (1996) 30; 99-103: “Skeletal Muscle Changes after short term vibration”

M. Falempin, et al; J. Appl. Physiology (1999) 87 (1); 3-9: “Influence of brief daily tendon vibration on rat soleus muscle in non-weight bearing situation”

B. Samuelson, L.Jorfeldt, B.Ahlborg; Clinical physiology 9:21-25; 1989: “Influence of vibration on endurance of maximal isometric contraction”

J. Rittweger, et al; Eur J Appl Physiol (2001) 86: 169-173. “Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement”

Kerschan-Schindl K, Grampp S, Henk C, Resch H, Preisinger E, Fialka-Moser V, Imhof H.: Clin Physiol 2001 May;21(3):377-82 “Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume.”

J. Rittweger, et al; Clin. Physiology 2000; 20 (2), 134-142. “Acute effects of exhaustive vibration exercise”

J. Rittweger, et al; Osteoporosis Int. 8 suppl.3 (1998); 121. “Acute Physiological effects of training with Galileo2000: first results”

D.J. Olivieri, et al; Am. J. Physical Med. & Rehabil. (1989) 2 (68); 81-85: “Increased skin temperature after Vibratory Stimulation”

Huclicka O, Wright A., Clin Sci Mol Med 1978 Nov;55(5):471-6: “The effect of vibration on blood flow in skeletal muscle in the rabbit.”

T.Klyscz, C.Ritter-Schempp, et al; Hautarzt 48: 318-322; 1997: “Biomechanische Stimulationstherapie (BMS) zur physikalischen Behandlung des arthrogenen Stauungssyndroms”

U. Hoffmann, et al; XVIIth ISB Congress, Calgary (book of abstracts) 1999; 287: “Effects of vibration on muscle energy turnover”

T.Klyscz, et al, Rheumaderm (Kluwer Academic press) pp. 46 – 53, “Biomechanical Stimulation Therapy”

T.Klyscz, C.Ritter-Schempp, et al; Hautarzt 48: 318-322; 1997: “Biomechanische Stimulationstherapie (BMS) zur physikalischen Behandlung des arthrogenen Stauungssyndroms”

Y. Nakagawa, et al; Eur. Journal Applied Physiol. 59: 239- 242; 1989: “Effect of disuse on ultrastructure of the achilles tendon in rats”

C.S. Enwemeka; Physical Therapy (1989) 10 (69); 816-825.: “Inflammation, Cellularity, and Fibrillogenesis in Regenerating Tendon; implications for Tendon Rehabilitation”

P. Burroughs, L.E. Dahners; Am. J. Sp. Med. 18 (1990) 4; 376-378: “The effect of enforced exercise on the healing of ligament injuries”

T.A.L. Wren, et al, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol. 37 No. 2, March/April 2000: Tendon and ligament adaptation to exercise, immobilization, and remobilization

F. Hefti, T.M. Stoll; Orthopade (1995) 24; 237-245.: Heilung von Ligamenten und Sehnen

TAKEI T.; MILLS I.;ARAI K.; SUMPIO B.E., Plast. Reconstr. Surg.; 102(1):247-58, 1998 Jul.: Molecular basis for tissue expansion: clinical implications for the surgeon.

TAKEI, T. et al., J. Cell Physiol; 173(1):64-72, 1997 Oct.: Effect of strain on human keratinocytes in vitro.

M. Skutek, et al: Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.; “Cyclic mechanical stretching modulates secretion pattern of growth factors in human tendon fibroblasts”

Heitkamp HC, Horstmann T, Mayer F, Weller J, Dickhuth HH. ; Int J Sports Med 2001 May; 22(4):285-90: ” Gain in strength and muscular balance after balance training.”

Luoto S, et al, Spine 1998, 23 (19) 2081- 9; “One-footed and externally disturbed two-footed postural control in patients with chronic low back pain and healthy control subjects. A controlled study with follow up”

Alexander TM, et al, J. Orthop. Sports Phys Ther. 1998, 28 (6), 378-83: “differences in static balance and weight distribution between normal subjects and subjects with chronic unilateral low back pain”.

editor unknown, Lancet (1992) 339; 1513-1514.: “Comment on Vibration Therapy”

T.Lundeberg, R.Nordemar, D.Ottoson; Pain 20: 25-44; 1984: “Pain alleviation by vibratory stimulation”

T.Lundeberg, et al; Scand. J. Rehab. Med. 19 (1987); 153-158: “Vibratory Stimulation compared to placebo in alleviation of pain”

M. Runge, J. Musculoskeletal interactions 2000 (1): 54-58: “Balance training and exercise in geriatric patients”

M.Runge: “Wenn Hochbetagte aus dem Leben fallen.”

M. Runge; Ost-Sonderheft Mobilitaet im alter “Gehen, Gehstorungen und Sturze im Alter”

M.Runge ” The multifactorial etiology of gait disorders, falls, and hip fractures in the elderly ”

2 studies are in progress at the moment (Free University Berlin, Clinic Gottingen) to measure the effects of WBV using the Galileo on stress-incontinence. In the 1st group after 3 month a subjectively and objectively measurable improvement was found in all 30 tested patients. Publication will follow later.

A large study focussed on training of COPD patients at the St Joseph Hospital in Veldhoven, The Netherlands, is planned.

T.Klyscz, et al, Rheumaderm (Kluwer Academic press) pp. 46 – 53, “Biomechanical Stimulation Therapy; a novel Physiotherapy method for Systemic Sclerosis”

T.Klyscz, C.Ritter-Schempp, et al; Hautarzt 48: 318-322; 1997: “Biomechanische Stimulationstherapie (BMS) zur physikalischen Behandlung des arthrogenen Stauungssyndroms”

J. Gianutsos, et al; Research Poster 222 from the New York School of Medicine presented at the AAPMR: “Motor Rehabilitation of Spinal Cord Disfunction by means of Whole Body Vibration”

JG Gianutsos, PhD; JH Ahn, MD; LC Oakes, BA; EF Richter III, MD; BB Grynbaum, MD; HG Thistle, MD “The Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Reflex-Induced Standing In Persons With Chronic And Acute Spinal Cord Injury” POSTER PRESENTATION TO: THE 3RD MEDITERRANEAN CONGRESS of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Athens, Greece, September 4-7, 2000

JG Gianutsos, PhD; L Slomovicz, PT,BS; T Ragnarsson, PT,MS; T Vaccaro, PT,MS; LC. Oakes, BA; and JT. Gold, MD “The Benefits of Whole Body Vibration in the Rehabilitation of a Pediatric Patient with Quadriplegia” POSTER PRESENTATION TO: THE 3RD MEDITERRANEAN CONGRESS of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Athens, Greece, September 4-7, 2000

JG Gianutsos, PhD; LC Oakes, BA; N Prufer, BA; V Kramskii, BA; EF Richter III, MD; M. Hutchinson, MD, PhD “Use of a Therapeutic Ranging/Exercise Program in the Rehabilitation of a Person with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy” POSTER PRESENTATION TO: THE 3RD MEDITERRANEAN CONGRESS of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Athens, Greece, September 4-7, 2000

Exposure to frequencies between 2-100 Hz results in the reduction of muscle spasms and more pronounced reduction of the spasms occurs the longer the treatment is applied, (D. Ardic, A. Buljina, 2000).

H. SchieBl; J. Willnecker Ph.D. “New Insight about Relationship Between Bone Strength and Muscle Strength” Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Durlacher Str. 35, D-751 72 Pforzheim, Germany

J. Rittweger; J. Ehrig2; K. Just; M. Mutschelknauss; K. A. Kirsch1, D. Felsenberg “Oxygen Uptake During Whole-Body Vibration Exercise: Influence of Vibration Frequency, Amplitude, and External Load” International Journal of Sports Medicine 2002; 23: 428-432.

C. Bosco, M. Cardinale “The Influence of Vibration on Arm Flexors Mechanical Power and EMG Activity of Biceps Brachii”

J. Rittweger, K. Just, K. Kautzsch, P. Reeg, D. Felsenberg, SPINE (2002); 2(1):1829-1834: “Treatment of Chronic Lower Back Pain with Lumbar Extension and Whole-Body Vibration Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial”

J. Rittweger, M. Mutschelknauss, D. Felsenberg, Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging (2003); 23(2):81-86: “Acute Changes in Neuromuscular Excitability After Exhaustive Whole Body Vibration Exercise as Compared to Exhaustion by Squatting Exercise”

C.J. de Ruiter, R.M. van der Linden, M.J.A. van der Zijden, A.P. Hollander, A. de Haan, Eur J Appl Physiol (2003) 88: 472-475: “Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Maximal Voluntary Isometric Knee Extensor Force and Rate of Force Rise”

Bosco, C; Cardinale, M, Tsarpela, O; Locatelli, E, New Studies in Athletics (1999) 14(4): 55-62: “New Trends in Training Science: The Use of Vibrations for Exhancing Performance”

L. Griffin, T. Ivanova, S.J. Garland, Exp Brain Res (2000) 130:392-400: “Role of Limb Movement in the Modulation of Motor Unit Discharge Rate During Fatiguing Contractions”

B. Drerup, M. Granitzka, J. Assheuer, J. Assheuer, G. Zerlett, Eur Spine J (1999) 8:458-467: “Assessment of Disc Injury in Subjects Exposed to Long-Term Whole Body Vibration”

F. Rauch, J. Rittweger, J Musculoskel Neuro Interact 2002; 2(5) 1-4: “What is New in Neuro-Muscular Skeletal Interactions?”

S. Judex, L.R. Donahue, C. Rubin, The FASEB Journal express article 10.1096/fj.01-0913fje: “Genetic Predisposition to Low Bone Mass is Paralleled by an Enhanced Sensitivity to Signals Anabolic to the Skeleton”

Y.P. Ivanenko, R. Grasso, F. Lacquaniti, J Neurophysiol 84: 1737-1747, 2000: “Influence of Leg Muscle Vibration on Human Walking”

S. Torvinen, Academic Dissertation: Acta Universitatis Tamperensis 908, University of Tampere, Tampere 2003: “Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Muscular Performance, Balance, and Bone”

J. Eisman, The Lancet, Volume 358 December 8, 2001 pg 1924-1925: “Good, Good, Good, Good Vibrations: The Best Opinion for Better Bones?”

C. Rubin, A.S. Turner, S. Bain, C. Mallinckrodt, K. McLeod, Nature, Vol 412 August 9, 2001, pg 603-604: “Low Mechanical Signals Strengthen Long Bones”

C. Rubin, S. Judex, M. Hadjiargyrou, J Musculoskel Neuron Interact 2002; 2(3):264-267: “Skeletal Adaptation to Mechanical Stimuli in the Absence of Formation or Resorption of Bone”

C. Rubin, S. Judex, M. Hadjiargyrou, J. Zhi, Program in Biomedical Engineering and the Center for Biotechnology State University of New York at Stony Brook: “Inhibition of Disuse Osteopenia by Low Level Mechanical Stimulation in Paralleled by Alterations in Gene Expression”

Ward KA, Alsop CW, Brown S, Caulton J, Adams JE, Mughal MZ, 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, September 22-26, 2001, Toronto, Canada: “A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Pilot Trial of Low Magnitude, High Frequency Loading Treatment of Children with Disabling Conditions Who Also Have Low Bone Mineral Density”

C. Bosco, R. Colli, R. Bonomi, S.P. Von Duvillard, A. Viru, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, The Official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, March 1998 pg 202-208: “Monitoring Strength Training: Neuromuscular and Hormonal Profile”

C. Delecluse, M. Roelants, S. Verschueren, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, The Official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, January 2003 pg 1033-1041: “Strength Increase after Whole Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training”

T. Carroll, S. Riek, R. Carson, Journal of Physiology (2002), 544.2,pp 641-652 : “The Sites of Neural Adaptation Induced by Resistance Training in Humans”

C. Bosco, Ph.D., D. U., D. Hon. C., Department of Exercise Physiology and Sport Biomechanics: University of Budapest Hungary; University of Rome Tor – Vergata, Italy – School of Specialisation in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation pp1-30: “Methods of Functional Testing During Rehabilitation Exercises”

C. Bosco, Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003 Jan;31(1):3-7: “The Use of Vibration as an Exercise Intervention”

C. Bosco, M. Cardinale, O. Tsarpela, R. Colli, J. Tihanyi, S.P. von Duvillard, A. Viru, Biology of Sport, 1998 Vol. 15, No. 3, 157-164: “The Influence of Whole Body Vibration on Jumping Performance”

A. Mark, M. MacDonald, M. Rakobowchuck, C. Gordon*, C. Blimkie, Department of Kinesiology and *Department of Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, L8S 4K1, “Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses During Whole Body Vibration (WBV) Exercise: A Pilot Study”

M. Cardinale, Semmelweis University Doctoral School Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Budapest 2002, “The Effects of Vibration on Human Performance and Hormonal Profile”

K. Miyamoto, S. Mori, S. Tanaka, M. Kawamoto, T. Mashiba, S. Komatsubara, T. Akiyama, J. Kawanishi, H. Norimatsu, Shirotori Hospital, Kagawa, Japan, Kagawa Med. University, Kagawa, Japan, IBMS-JSBMR 2003 Abstract Poster 506, “Whole-Body Vibration Exercise in the Elderly People”

Denise Mann, Rheumawire, November 3, 2003, “Vibration Therapy Improves Walk, Balance in Elderly”

Bruyere O, Wuidart, MA, et al. Presentation: Controlled Whole Body Vibrations Improve Health Related Quality of Life in Elderly Patients. Orlando, FL: American College of Rheumatology: 2003 meeting; October 23-28, 2003: Abstract 1271.

O. Buyere, MA. Wuidart, E. Palma, M. Gourlay, O. Ethgen, F. Richy, J-Y., Poster Presentation: Controlled Whole Body Vibration to Decrease Fall Risk and Improve Health Related Quality of Life in Elderly Patients.

Y. Nishihira, T. Iwasaki, A. Hatta, T. Wasaka, T. Kaneda, K. Kuroiwa, S. Akiyama, T. Kida, K. Ryol, Japan Society of Exercise and Sports Physiology, ISSN 1340-3141 pg 83-86: Effect of Whole Body Vibration Stimulus and Voluntary Contraction on Motoneuron Pool

ESA Human Spaceflight, European Space Agency, March 4, 2003: Bed Rest Study Started in Berlin.

S. Torvinen, P. Kannus, H. Sievanen, T. Jarvinen, M. Pasanen, S. Kontulainen, T. Jarvinen, M. Jarvinen, P. Oja, I. Vuori, Clin. Physiol. & Func. Im. (2002) 22, pp 145-152: Effect of a Vibration Exposure on Muscular Performance and Body Balance. Randomized Cross-Over Study.

M. Hinman, PT, EdD, Presentation: Whole Body Vibration: A New Exercise Approach.

CR. Russo, F. Lauretani, S. Bandinelli, B. Bartali, C. Cavazzini, JM. Guralnik, L. Ferrucci, Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Dec; 84(12):1854-7: High-Frequency Vibration Training Increases Muscle Power in Postmenopausal Women.

Von der Heide S, Emons G, Hilgers R, Viereck V, International Continence Society, Poster Presentation 285 (2003): Effect on Muscle of Mechanical Vibrations Produced by the Galileo 2000 in Combination with Physical Therapy in Treating Female Stress Urinary Incontinence.

C. Rubin, R. Recher, D. Cullen, J. Ryaby, J. McCabe, K. McLeod (2004) Volume 19, Number 3, pp 343-351: Prevention of Postmenopausal Bone Loss by a Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Mechanical Stimuli: A Clinical Trial Assessing Compliance, Efficacy, and Safety.

S. MP Verschueren, M. Roelants, C. Delecluse, S. Swinnen, D. Vanderschueren, S. Boonen, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2004) Volume 19, Number 3, pp 352-359: Effect of 6-Month Whole Body Vibration Training on Hip Density, Muscle Strength, and Postural Control in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

K. Ward, C. Alsop, J. Caulton, C. Rubin, J. Adams, Z. Mughal, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2004) Volume 19, Number 3, pp 360-369: Low Magnitude Mechanical Loading Is Osteogenic in Children With Disabling Conditions.

M. Cardinale, J. Lim, Medicina Dello Sport (2003) 56:287-92: The Acute Effects of Two Different Whole Body Frequencies on Vertical Jump Performance.

M. Cardinale, J. Lim, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2003, 17(3), 621-624: Electromyography Activity of Vastus Lateralis Muscle During Whole-Body Vibrations of Different Frequencies.

Karen Pallarito, Washington Post, June 8, 2004; Page HE01: In Tony Health Clubs, All Shook Up.

P. Burns, K. Beekhuizen, P. Jacobs; Poster Presentation at the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2-5, 2004: “Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Lower Body Flexibility and Strength.”

K. Beekhuizen, E. Field-Fote, P. Burns, P. Jacobs; Poster Presentation at the American College of Sports Medicine, June 2-5, 2004: “Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Soleus H-Reflex.”

J. Iwamoto, Y. Otaka, K. Kudo, T. Takeda, M. Uzawa, K. Hirabayashi, Keio J Med 2004; 53 (2): 85-89: “Efficacy of Training Program for Ambulatory Competence in Elderly Women.”

Us Weekly, July 25, 2005, Page 45; “Gwen Stephani The Rocker Zeroed in on Tightening her Thighs”

Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Uzawa, M; Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005 Apr;17(2):157-63: “Effect of whole-body vibration exercise on lumbar bone mineral density, bone turnover, and chronic back pain in post-menopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate”

Russell Adams, Wall Street Journal, October 22-23, 2005, Pg 6-7; “After Steroids: The New Juice”

Readers Digest, November 2005, “Shaken, Not Stirred”

Carrie Myers Smith, Health Magazine, November 2005, Pg. 62-65; “All Shook Up”

Many additional studies in progress…

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